Treatment non-adherence has been associated with reduced efficacy of treatments and increased health care costs but its impact on cognitive health has never been evaluated. With our ageing population, mild cognitive disorders are likely to severely impact self-management of medication and chronic disease in the 20% of adults aged 70+ who do not have dementia but meet criteria for cognitive impairment. This important impact on cognitive health has rarely been explored and its importance is unmeasured, resulting in minimal development of interventions or policy. We hypothesise that there is large potential to improve cognitive health by improving chronic disease management. The socio-ecological framework provides a model for understanding how social, psychological, and environmental factors, such as access to services, may impact on cognitive health via self-management of chronic disease. Using AusDiab we will evaluate these factors, extending models developed by Brown and colleagues to include cognitive health. This work will inform the development and pilot of an intervention to evaluate cognition as an outcome of improved chronic disease management.